Where the Moss Grows
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19. Prone to impulse buys of lipstick and books.
dancingspirals:

ironychan:

hungrylikethewolfie:

dduane:


A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)

(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.

I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool.  But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.

Bread Fraud was a huge thing,  Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead.  So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.

Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.
If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.
Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.
Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.

dancingspirals:

ironychan:

hungrylikethewolfie:

dduane:

A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)

(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.

I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool.  But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.

Bread Fraud was a huge thing,  Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead.  So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.

Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.

If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.

Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.

Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.

(Source: wine-loving-vagabond)

esplin9466:

andaisq:

i misread that as “fake greek girls” and i just pictured some chick in a historically inaccurate toga reciting from an upside down copy of virgil

both togas and virgil are historical references to ancient rome and have nothing to do with greece and i can’t tell if that’s just a mistake or if it’s supposed to be part of the joke

adriennepitts:

It’s going to be quite a while before I can share the DSLR photographs I took in Iceland with you, so for the meanwhile, here are some of my favourite Instagram shots taken during 5 days in this most magical of places. I cannot wait to return, and explore this treasure of a place even further… If you’d like to see more you can visit me @hellopoe on Instagram!

All images © 2014 Adrienne Pitts - www.adrienne.co.nz

alwaysstarwars:

Illustrations from William Shakespeare’s Star Wars by Ian Doescher.  Definitely worth checking out, if you haven’t already!

(The Ackbar picture is my favorite)

mindofamedstudent:

Tutorial: how to make organized notes.

  1. Read the objectives of the lecture. If there aren’t any, flip through the lecture slides and make an outline. This puts into perspective what you need to be learning and what you should get out of this lecture.
  2. Skim the book to get familiar with how the information is divided compared to your outline or objectives. While doing this, you’ll figure out whether or not you need the extra details from the book. Sometimes the lecture is enough and you could keep the textbook just as a reference to things you don’t get.
  3. Write down the first objective and flip to the page in the book that has the information pertaining to that objective. Read the lecture slide then refer to the book for details.
  4. Combine your lecture notes with the textbook information. Do this by rewriting the information in your own words and try to be as concise as possible. 
  5. Keep doing this for every objective. Paste things if it helps.
  6. Make sure that you’re not just copying information. Use visual aids as much as possible. Put the information in a table, flowchart, diagram, etc.. (refer to this post to see how I make my flowcharts).
  7. When you’re done with all your objectives, go through the lecture and your notes to make sure you didn’t miss anything.

General tips on how to keep them organized:

  • Be systemic. Making objective-oriented notes is one way to do that. 
  • Use two (or more colors). Color-coding information helps me remember it + it doesn’t look that bad.
  • Section your objectives according to the topic. Then make sure that when you’re writing out the information, it’s in a sequence that’s understandable.

Disclaimer: this is the way I’ve been making my notes since I started med school. By no means am I claiming it’s perfect or that everybody should follow it.

Hope this helps and as always, happy studying :)

theheatofthesouth:

1. First cut up some strawberries and soak em in vodka for as long as you can bear to wait (if you do it overnight it’s even better)
2. Then add some lemonade.
3. Stir and serve with mint.
4. Be drunk.


Just a pool, disguised as a pond, with a trampoline instead of a diving board.
I wrote a paper about these kinds of pools several years ago for a class when they were just prototypes. These pools have a natural filtration system that run based on the plants that are in the pool that give the water nutrients that allow it to not only be crystal clear, but you are also able to drink the water because it becomes so clean. And the best part is that once the initial filtration system is installed and calibrated, it maintains itself and eliminates the need for chlorine or constant maintenance like salt water pools. 

Just a pool, disguised as a pond, with a trampoline instead of a diving board.

I wrote a paper about these kinds of pools several years ago for a class when they were just prototypes. These pools have a natural filtration system that run based on the plants that are in the pool that give the water nutrients that allow it to not only be crystal clear, but you are also able to drink the water because it becomes so clean. And the best part is that once the initial filtration system is installed and calibrated, it maintains itself and eliminates the need for chlorine or constant maintenance like salt water pools. 

(Source: wikingvinning)

"This is how it feels to be Anakin Skywalker, forever:
The first dawn of light in your universe brings pain.
The light burns you. It will always burn you. Part of you will always lie upon black glass sand beside a lake of fire while flames chew upon your flesh.
You can hear yourself breathing. It comes hard, and harsh, and it scrapes nerves already raw, but you cannot stop it. You can never stop it. You cannot even slow it down.
You don’t even have lungs anymore.

You open your scorched-pale eyes; optical sensors integrate light and shadow into a hideous simulacrum of the world around you.
Or perhaps the simulacrum is perfect, and it is the world that it hideous.

You remember the dragon that brought Vader forth from your heart to slay. You remember the cold venom in Vader’s blood. You remember the furnace of Vader’s fury, and the black hatred of seizing her throat to silence her lying mouth -
And there is one blazing moment in which you finally understand that there was no dragon. That there was no Vader. That there was only you. Only Anakin Skywalker.

You killed her.
You killed her because, finally, when you could have saved her, when you could have gone away with her, when you could have been thinking about her, you were thinking about yourself…
It is in this blazing moment that you finally understand the trap of the dark side, the final cruelty of the Sith -
Because now your self is all you will ever have.

In the end, the shadow is all you have left.
Because the shadow understands you, the shadow forgives you, the shadow gathers you unto itself -
And within your furnace heart, you burn in your own flame.
This is how it feels to be Anakin Skywalker.
Forever…"
-  - Revenge of the Sith, Matthew Stover (via imperialarchon)

(Source: lotusflower85)